july 4 2020 we welcome help at linkedin UN womens with our interdependence series- jargon reminder AI: in hi-tech world Artificial Intelligence is buzz
phrase for what is the 27th decade since 1760s when 2 graduates of Glasgow University first engineer James Watt and first
economist adam smith started up what some people call viral society 5.0 joining up one industrial and 4 post-industrial revolutions until every local community is interdendent globally as corona chaos and other lives inequalities demonstrate
IF livesmatter.city many missing (or interdisciplinary) curricula to zoom now from virus comeback, to those eg climate adaptability and local to global youth engagement which ban ki-moon and
vienna invite you to compose - here we return to Economist archives of future history- did some decades overshoot tech's opportunity to POP -Preferentially Option Poorest - system
designs - exponential opportunities and threats?
what entrepreneurial and humanising uses of smart machines
multiplied exponentially in last 75 years?
for worse eg virus/climate/ -dismal
media design spins ever higher borders between 200 nations even as humans 4g on mobilise universally
for better- you can mobilise life critical action learnng to or from any people you love- unlike consuming
goods lice critical apps multiply value in use round the greatest goals ever imagineered
question me --- to try to get ready for the urgency of 2020 now- i co-edited book 2025 report back in 1984 suggesting now 2020s would be the most exciting decade -thank you to 7 million hong kong people and 1 million vienna people for taking up this relay batton even as the olympics fell to the
do the exponential maths-economics modeling! - are the 2020s the most exciting decade to be alive because it's
the last decade that 8 billion people could map systems saving our species. moore at 81ways.comwill wall street, harvard & olympics be virus immune?
my 80s were diferemt from dad's - The Economist's Norman Macrae, i helped MIT fill up a database of societal needs
across asia; ... once my daughter was grown i spent most of 2010s commuting between usa and bangladesh, and from 2016
Beijing which has also valued womens lives matter more and more since the 1970s - to see if there was a small way to help
my greatest ever hero fazle abed who died dec 2019 after helping quarter of a billion village women build health and food security services from nothing includineg
no access to electricity grids until suddenly while the west enjoyed 4g commerce, out of bangaldesh solar and 2gt text
mobiles designed banking for a billion unbanked bkash.com and sir fazle's last years were spent asking the world's largest
coalition of ngos to link in his legacy an open university of girls sdg solutions networks -see brac u bux and osun
but ask yourself do you know what went expoentially right and wrong in each of these decades (not for those profiteering
in a quarter but for those parents loving next generation)- and what was the most diverse local differences between right
and wrong (why?)
1960s moon race decade
1970s moores law 0 decade- see surveys on tios page
80s 1G decade
00s 3g decade - what went wrong 7 billion peopel did not agree ending poverty was man's greatest risk- terrorists
struck back- then superpowe4er chose the wrong retailtion target; nations started to fail all around europe africa and aisia's
landbridge the middle east- in sepeeration bush wanted to be rememberd for ending virus but nobody took him up; senate tok
its eye off the fiacial ball and subprime started a decade of depressing 4g start ups in west
4g 2010s only asian startups
worked on sdgs- universal mobile introduced more hman data tahn ever before- buit the wests big data companies didnt selecte
ai virus ai education ai climate -
2020s so only asia can unite worldwide youth to globally engage with 5g www.lives,atter.city-
will usa and europe ever get back to loving youoth - by the end of 2020 we will know ameicas chpice, we may know europe versus
britain's choice- one reason why a smart boros needs to meet xi jinping behing the scenes - odeally with some mediation by
poppe francis- ok reality has become weirder than science fiction - over 80 years since my father survived as a teenager in
world war 2 navigating aitrplanes in bomber comand over moderday bangaldesh/myamar we have tried to celebarte the peoples
heroic frontline stories- if publicv sevannts dont want top eopely empower youth to be the first sdg generatipn we ask theor
lobbies to stay away - firstname.lastname@example.org Outofbeltway.com near us national institute of health whats app +1 240 316 8157 -please feel free to open source any paragrphs
forom norman macrae surveys if you see a future history that is exponentially valuable to recheck now we have far more analytic
capability than 8 billion human brns bowling alone
LIVESMATTER.city TGDhaka- thank goodness for everyone 1 2 3 who met and trusted fazle abed partnerships in valuing women building community
to end poverty- more footnote to this column
TGHK1 Thank Goodness Hong Kong peoples = world's most trusted brand architects. To study national brand architecture
rewind to conversation I had with a journalist at The Economist in 1988 which became the christmas issue survey - The Year
of the Brand. I had spent 1980s helping MIT startup compile the first global database of what societies wanted most from the
biggest corporate brands. I contributed several hundred cases mainly from Asian countries based on about a million hours of
interviewing consumers. In 1980s that was big data! This showed people most wanted safety and trust from brand leaders: fewer
and fewer advertised brands delivered that in battling over perceptions instead of exponentially purposeful reality. Whenever
I am confused by English speaking market/economics experts i go read adam smith. Ok many generations of my family tree flow
cultural bias of being Diaspora Scot. But what I aim to explore with adam smith's mindset is two entrepreneurial revolutions
that surrounded him. #1 his coworker at Glasgow U 1760 was first engineer James Watt. So Adam was searched benefits of humanis9ng
machines around the world. #2 adam did not "like" how slavery was embedded in the capital mindset of the English
each season ER friends focus on the places or spaces we wish the younger half of the world
could friend to enjoy sustaining their futures on mother earth
our place for summer 2020 is hong kong
is those wanting to continue sir fazle abed legacy as largest ngo ecosystem in the world:
sheikha moza *charles yidan*Japan Ais*Netherlands Royal family*Ban ki-moon - who have
we left out? rsvp email@example.com
when researching bio of father of programable computing john von neumann
he was clear dual languages*coders would be crucial to youth humanising AI - if you love dual language educators 1 2 3 4 please tell us
if every teacher and child was free to study with fazle abed- what
would the most exciting jobs curricula of the sustainability goals generation compose --- i would like to see a
bux full of cases on when is a positive cash flow model the most beautiful system people can spend their lives/livelihoods
compounding -when the model is scaling a goal everyone sees as entrepreneurially vital to advancing human lot - thats what
i search abed for and which i wish osun or yidan or peking university dean or friends in hong kong/mit etc would make a cooperation
challenge out of -how you use VEST innovations and apply sequentially to SHELF MARKETS - Security Health Education Loveq Finance
- education is the inner loop- brac women network -for 25 years peer to peer, then text mobile in jack ma cases smart mobile
- it round health and loveq - security of community is multiple things- food security, disaster resilience, personal/family
security including land right for home, f is finance for billion unbanked women- if you do that foundations of goals 1-6 are
integrally designed into every nation- you can then get on with 7-12 as well as tech leapfroging and 13-16 going green- goal
17 is falesly worded needed eg malluch brown to lead its change specification instead of big ppp we needed pyp ie youth mediating
public-private and pop- ie each tech leapfrog or big data platform preferential operationalised poor - thats what fazle abed
designed into brac- essentially franciscan dna which also matches many forms of asian consciousness www.entrepreneurialrevolution.city
We're All Intrapreneurial Now - 17th April 1982, The Economist, Norman Macrae
In a survey called "The coming entrepreneurial revolution"
in The Economist of December 25, 1976, Norman Macrae argued that "methods of operation in business are going to change
radically in the next few decades, in a direction opposite to that which most businessmen and nearly all politicians expect".
The survey aroused enthusiasm and infuriation in almost equal measure, with invitations to lecture in more than 20 countries.
Today Macrae updates his views on management methods that can make even lousy businesses profitable, and those that are driving
tighter organizations to the wall.
1976 survey argued that the world probably needed to work on the end of the era of big business corporations, because it would
soon be seen to be nonsense to have hierarchical managements sitting in skyscraping offices trying to arrange how brainworkers
(who in future would be most workers) could best use their imaginations. The main increases in employment would henceforth
come either in small firms or in those bigger firms that managed to split themselves into smaller and smaller profit centres
which would need to become more and more entrepreneurial.
As so often with supposedly controversial journalism, this proved to be an exercise in tentatively
forecasting something that had already begun to happen a decade before, although it honestly was the opposite of what was
being most widely reported at the time. In 1976 the textbooks being most assiduously fed to business courses were still Ken
Galbraith's. "The new industrial state" and Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber's "Le defin americain", each
of which was a bible to the advocates of industrial policies then subsidising British Steels, British Leylands and Projects
Concorde into growing inefficiently larger and therefore irretrievably bust. These mergers were procreated on the thesis,
explicitly stated by Ken Galbraith, that markets had been replaced by planning in favor of big technostructures so that large
organisations like Chrysler or United States Steel did not lose money any more. "By all but the pathologically romantic",
cried Ken Galbraith in 1967, "it is now recognised that this is not the age of the small man". He believed that
the most economic size for business corporations in the future could be "'very, very large".
Shortly before these two books were -written
and, instantly reached the best-selling lists, precisely the opposite trends had remorselessly begun to occur.
By 1965 small workplaces were already out-performing
big ones on almost every count. Even in idealistic occupations, British hospitals with under 100 beds had between one half
and two thirds the sickness rates among nurses as hospitals with more than 100 beds. I got my saddest quote of the late 1970s
from the manager of a huge factory in Manchuria (though he could find echoes at Detroit, London Airport, Kama River): "During
the period of disruption by the gang of four many workers came only on pay-days, some carrying placards saying I was a fly
on top of putrescent meat. With 10,000 comrades here, it was impossible to check the absenteeism, pilfering and work-dodging
that went on".
biggest world political event since the 1960s is that communist countries have proved less able than free-market ones to escape
from inefficient giantism in state factories and farms, so they are all going bust. In free-market countries managers are
eventually more willing to lose face than their shareholders are to lose money, but tough problems are arising as even capitalist
mid-1960s the thousand biggest firms in the United States have as a group been sensibly reducing their labour forces, and
more than the whole of the 15m private-sector jobs created since then have come in smaller firms-the majority of the new extra
jobs at any one time being in firms less than five years old, even though more than half of new small American firms disappear
out of business in their first five years. Although survey dates are jumbled, the accompanying inadequate charts suggest the
same trend is accelerating even in manufacturing across the capitalist world. The present capitalist conjuncture is therefore
one where the bigger and more stable firms are running down their employment, while more than the whole of net new employment
is provided by small firms which, however, frequently go bust. Ow! And some thought needs to be given to ways of combining
the advantages of small firms within big ones.
Make departments minifirms
In my 1976 survey I suggested there would be two trends-in the most conventional
of which, greater reliance on subcontracting, I now think I was jejune. Subcontracting works only when the big firm has very
tight quality control (as have Marks and Spencer, big Japanese companies towards tiny component makers and the superbly entrepreneurial
Italian textile industry, see later). Subcontracting does not work when the big firm cannot measure what quality is, so that
many management consultants, public relations firms etc. are about to disappear because they are high-cost ramps.
The second system I suggested in 1976 was that
dynamic corporations of the future should simultaneously be trying several alternative ways of doing things in competition
within themselves, becoming what have later been called confederations of "intrapreneurs". Two key concepts for
efficient businesses here. First, the right size for each profit centre or intrapreneurial group-by which I mean a group of
friends working together in daily productivity hunt towards the same objective-is very small, probably not more than 10 or
11 people, however dynamic your top management. Jesus Christ tried 12, and that proved one too many. Second, firms should
not pay people for attendance at the workplace but should pay competing groups for modules of work done.
Thus, if you need a typing pool, I have suggested
it might be best to set up several competing groups of Typists Intrapreneurial. You would offer an index linked contract to
the group for a set period, specifying the services you wanted in return for a lump-sum monthly payment. The typists would
apportion the work among themselves, devise their own flexitime, choose their own lifestyles, decide whether to replace a
leaver by a full-timer or part-timer or whether to do her work and keep more money per head. They could also decide whether
to tender for extra paid work from outside. In offices with tomorrow's equipment, there could, see later, be a lot.
A trivial example? By comparison
with the gains that can be made in other fields it is. Yet the EEC court of auditors has recently ruled that the proper output
for a typist is around 24 pages a day, and was upset that in some EEC departments the average, was only 12. In The Economist
on a print-day Wednesday, when we are feeling rather participatory, a top secretary will type around 60 pages. If some EEC
departments went over to that pace through being Typists Intrapreneurial, the stenographers could choose to work only one
day a week for the same weekly wage as now, or by slowing recruitment they could work for up to five times their existing
wages for the same present attendance at the office, or they could become five times more efficient. In practice, competition
would ensure a mixture of the three, and the scope in most other parts of the business and bureaucratic jungle is much vaster.
This survey will explore that
wider jungle, starting from the intrapreneurial mechanisms needed to breed new projects and going on through to those needed
eventually to kill outdated ones (and make it participatory fun to send them to South Korea).
About 85% of all the industrial R & D expenditure
in the United States takes place in 300 large corporations. It is done very wastefully.
norman macrae spent his last days as teenager navigating airplanes raf bomber commans over modernday myanma rbangaldesh-in
the air force you get some donw time - his one book to read was adam smkith- he concluded root cause of world wars was empires-
spent his life mediating east and west loving ecah others children- he would be disguisted by westrn politics during the 10
yeras since he parted - to see why western youth need to make friends wth eastern youth if our5 species is ti survie - read
some of these surveveys from the economist during the 0G 1G decades 1960s-1970s
Remembering Norman Macrae at The Economist
OHN VON NEUMANN
By Norman Macrae. 405 pp. New York: A Cornelia and Michael Bessie Book/ Pantheon Books. $25.
BY any measure, John von Neumann
was a rare creature. Unequivocally one of the brightest minds of the 20th century, he made an indelible mark in mathematics,
physics, economics, nuclear weapons technology and computer science, and had a hand in inventing at least three new fields
-- cellular automata theory (showing how groups of inanimate cells can be made to behave as if they were alive), game theory
(applying mathematics to the art of decision making) and the systematic study of the similarity of minds and computers. In
one of his own pet phrases, he "jiggled the planet." So why is it that most people haven't the faintest idea who
question. Norman Macrae, the former principal editor of The Economist, sets out to rectify matters in "John von Neumann,"
the first full-scale biography of this polymath, who was born Jewish in Hungary in 1903 and died Roman Catholic in the United
States at the age of 53. And Mr. Macrae has some great stories to tell.
Von Neumann's grammar school tutor, we learn, "came home
with tears in his eyes from his first encounter with the young prodigy." One of von Neumann's college professors happened
to mention in class an "unsolved" problem in mathematics. "Johnny came up privately at the end, and solved
it."When he was 17 years old, von Neumann decided to pursue his undergraduate and graduate degrees simultaneously,
in two different disciplines and in two separate countries. He wound up getting a diploma in chemical engineering from Zurich's
famous Federal Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Budapest, both in the same year,
at the ripe old age of 22.
| |xxThanks amitav- - your perspective from being in middle of the worldwide sdg-tech
smartest coalitions of under 25s is absolutely critical
81ways.com -countdown to sdgs 2030- way 24 july-agst 2020
informal entrepreneurial revolution survey: top 3 worldwide students agendas 20-21
On Jul 9, 2020, at 6:43 PM, christopher macrae <firstname.lastname@example.org>
million foreign university students in usa being
told visa cancelled unless real classes
you position on this?
i would like to survey top agendas
or missing curricula worldwide students networks need to keep locally linking in
in addition to how foreign students are treated in mr trump's and corona 2020s america
2 the shortlist of who to follow on containing this virus
as a decade long
challenge is my urgent vote- the only famous american expert i still trust is larry brilliant Larry Brilliant on How Well We Are Fighting Covid-19
but this is an area that needs a lot of co-searching from practices of tracing on the ground to which experts understand
a virus that some asians have been continuously action learning around for 17 years but nobody in america has at a multidisciplinary
deep data level that ai corona would need.my guess is really local 5g may be as critical as vaccine racers
( One reason why i have less trust in silicon valley today than a;most anyone is in 2004 larry won the ted prize-
tech mapping for end viruses- all members were invited to help and as a result google.org was founded around larry- so how
did google fail to include virus over 2010s big data decade and why did skoll larry's home after he left google fail to prioritise
- in one sense these are unfair questions- in another sense anyone graduating today must keep on asking them imo). I would
have trusted jim kim but is seems he has decided not to engage while politics not practice mediates corona america
3 my third is very personal coming from 4 generations of scots who have lived in the
east or anywhere but scotland (except for holidays) in terms of what brexited- britain is about to do wrong - if you look
at 8 million people (ie one thousandths of our species) to earn trust with,l I want to focus on hong kong this
student year- i have quite a deep catalogue of who can scale worldwide solutions on what out of hong kong if anyone wants
to turn that into a shared search EconomistHongKong.com
of course hearing other
peoples top 3 passions for transparency would be wonderful educational experience!
safe chris whats app +1 240 316 8157
On Thursday, 9 July 2020, 19:29:41 GMT-4,
Amitav Acharya <email@example.com> wrote:
and inhuman. Many universities led by harvard and MIT already suing. Many others and filing “amicus brief” support.
Much is at stake. Cannot think of any example where admitted foreign students have been deliberately treated so terribly.
Self damaging for US too. Trump is doing this to force universities to reopen normally despite severe health risks to students
and faculty. And to spite at the universities in general.
Absolutely crazy moment in history.
Acharya (@AmitavAcharya), Distinguished Professor, School of International Service, American University, Washington DC
Making of Global International Relations (Cambridge 2019); Constructing Global Order (Cambridge
2018); The End of American World Order,
2nd edition (Polity 2018)
| which US sports will exist 20-21? - I dont
see college sports 20-21- I write not as sports expert, but love of sports can wake up american communities to concentrate:
what data youth need to track -i earned MA stats cambridge 73- i map valuation social big data: integrated community up not
just top down lawyer admin. http://www.entrepreneurialrevolution.city = my dad's life mediated mobilising socialtech at The
Economist - "moore" exponential valuation http://www.chrismacrae.com http://www.economistsports.net : threads
1 big colleges
likely virtual 20/21 -
2 consider basketball or football team: cant separate from college life; if college into isolation because one
team member tests positive 99% of students can sue .
3 we have to wait to october to hear next news on survival
of olympics but when you look how consciously japan populace reacts whenever a week has 100 new cases the tracing apps needed
to greet and stage olympics look impossible to develop in time- in fact I argue that if any of olympics next 3 hosts are to
happen total renegotiation of the brands operations/ownership needed; http://www.economistjapan.com http://www.economistarts.com
4 so yes where
professionals can be isolated and games played outdoors audiences from zero to a few hundred may be possible-
| Towards inventors intrapreneurial|
About 70,000 patents are issued in the United States each year.
Of these, maybe 60,000 are never heard of again, because most are horse manure. There will be some hidden pearls among it,
and more could be found if patent offices were more intrapreneurial instead of often being inefficient government filing offices,
some not even properly computerised. Governments should establish competing intrapreneurial teams in patent offices, compiling
Of the perhaps 10,000 new patents a year round the world that are used, only about 10-20 a year are for what
the co-inventor of the ubiquitous integrated circuit, Mr. Jack Kilby, calls "major" inventions things that change
our lives. A list of the world's major inventions over the past 50 years shows that big organisations claim to have discovered
only around a third of them, and some of their claims are fibs. More than two thirds have been discovered by individuals or
The individual inventors' list of the past 50 years turns alphabetically from air conditioning, automatic
transmissions and ballpoint pens, through jet engines and penicillin, to xerography and the zipper. The big companies' list
runs more predictably through crease-resistant fabrics, float glass, synthetic detergents. Note how these fit with corporate
objectives; "We are a big textile or soap company, so go for something capital-intensive". "We are Pilkington's
Glass, and if we can beat plate glass by developing float glass, then every motor car in the world will eventually pay us
a royalty, so it is worth carrying on with research into solving the last three problems in the way of float glass even through
12 consecutive years of negative cash flow."
Nobody should underestimate the tangible and intrapreneurial excitement
among a tiny group of researchers when such a big firm's opportunity presents itself. Sir Alastair Pilkington has described
how his research group into float glass was kept small enough to maintain total secrecy, so that experiments had been in progress
for seven years before competitors knew of them; how several of his team members, after working impossibly long hours, were
carried away on stretchers suffering from heat exhaustion; how 100,000 tons of float glass were made and broken before the
great day which produced the first bit they could sell. But, to quote Jack Kilby again, each invention presents a profile
of opportunities and requirements, while each company has its own profile of what constitutes to it an acceptable product.
The probability that these two profile, will coincide in any given case is not very high.
The result is that many big companies'
brilliant researchers are, in conditions of great secrecy, in their seventh consecutive year of smashing unusable float glass.
The most promising set of incentives for R and D departments to stray down interesting byways has been
suggested by Mr. Gifford Pinchot III of Mr. Bob Schwartz's Tarrytown School for Entrepreneurs near New York, and they are
being tried out by some clients of the new School for Intrapreneurs run by the Foresight Group management consultancy in Sweden.
I should have introduced Mr. Pinchot before, because he is the inventor of the word "intrapreneurs", in a paper
which paid kindly tribute to my 1976 survey. His description of what is happening in semi-reforming big corporations:
alone is not enough. In a hierarchical organisation, promotions can be won by special graces, loyalty to one's boss and general
political skills. Courage, original thought, and ability to observe the obvious do not necessarily lead to success. If we
are to get really good problem-solving in our decentralised corporations, we must introduce a system that gives the decision
to those who get successful results, not to the inoffensive. Such people will be willing to take moderate risks and will be
more concerned with achieving results than gaining influence. These are among the characteristics of the successful entrepreneur.
What is needed in the large corporation is not more semi-independent departments run by hard-driving yes men, but something
akin to free-market entrepreneurship within the corporate organisation.
His recommendations about intra-capital, see the next
two paragraphs, could prove one of the great social inventions.
Under Mr. Pinchot's proposals for R and D departments a researcher
wishing to plunge intrapreneurially into some project would initially have to risk something of value to himself; such as
10% of the costs of a project, up to 20% of his salary for the duration of a project and two years thereafter. A committee
within the company would then contract to "buy" completed research in an intrapreneurial scheme for both cash bonuses
and intra-capital. If a company makes $1m on a project, the intrapreneur's share might be $100,000, of which only $10,000
might come in cash and $90,000 might come in intra-capital which the intrapreneur can invest on the corporation's behalf in
future R and D projects of his own choice. If he is successful again, his reward will be another cash bonus (probably larger
the second time) plus more intra-capital.
This system, says Mr. Pinchot, motivates creative staff to think practically and frees
their individual initiative. It minimises politics and maximises performance as a criterion for advancement. It rapidly puts
a portion of the company's R&D budget in the hands of proven winners. It gives any good research staffer a strong reason
to stay with the company, since leaving would mean giving up control of his accumulated intra-capital.
My own variant of the Pinchot
scheme would put less emphasis on the idea of the company undertaking projects, more on it helping to farm them out, while
still rewarding the intrapreneurial inventor in Pinchot's way. To quote Mr. Ralph Landau (founder of Halcon International,
and one of America's most successful entrepreneurs), there are two stages in innovation: (a) the conception or invention of
a new or improved process, product or system; (b) the commercialisation of it. Stage (b), the commercialisation, will generally
cost between two and ten times as much as stage (a). This great expense of commercialisation for products that do not fit
a particular firm's "profile"–creates a danger. Intrapreneurialism in R and D will not go fast enough if it
becomes a device for regruntling touchy young Boffin by pretending to put his wheeze along the company's existing production
and distribution lines that are quite unfitted for it.
Which leads to supermarkets for ideas. A big next vogue should be the
sale of ideas telecommunicated between computer terminals. Everybody should have different ideas on how to tie intra-capital
into these and how the offering firm can sift for quality; but, once competing mechanisms are established, sales of ideas
should be decided intrapreneurialy, as sales of goods already are in firms whose salesmen are virtually independent businessmen
working on commission. Franchising extends this concept. The only sales element subject to "tight central control"
in such companies is the salesmen's expense account, which is therefore the one element on which the central controller is
A steel mill's eels
Mr. Pinchot's group at Tarrytown is soon going to establish in America
the world's second school for intrapreneurs. The first started when the Foresight Group (itself originally four intrapreneurial
Swedes operating from their homes) in 1980 persuaded some Swedish client companies to announce on their internal notice boards:
"any would-be intrapreneur come to a meeting". In most companies 40-60 turned up, about equally upper-blue-collar
and middle-management. The school wanted 2-4 from each company for the first course, each with a separate specific intrapreneurial
idea. Twelve people lasted through the first Swedish course, which consisted of six meetings-the first of a week, the next
five each of three days. The course tried to turn each fuzzy idea into a business concept, then into a business plan.
those first graduates in 1981 there are now emerging (eg) two use-of waste-heat projects (one man is pumping a steel mill's
heat into a pond that breeds eels, another a paper mill's heat and computer knowhow into some computerised greenhouses); a
man from a building company is making prefabricated concrete elevator shafts (likely to boom in Sweden because of new environmental
rules demanding too many lifts for the handicapped); and an Esso man is converting repair garages behind filling stations
(many of which are closing) into places to store and lease out do-it-your-self equipment. Some of these look more like the
creation of small new capitalists than intrapreneurial ventures, but Sweden's silly tax law (which is suspicious of the transfer
of forgone income to capital) makes intra-capital difficult.
It would be wise for all governments
to alter this sort of tax law. Other government policies "in favour of entrepreneurship" make less sense. ,,click for whole survey
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you can download powerpoint full 18 page survey entrepreneurial revoltion- norman macrae economist 1976 here