adam smith- can machines be marketed to value each next child born?

can tech resolve bad banking, mad health markets, sad edu

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Leon Botstein and greatest educators of sdg generation

 
5:31NOW PLAYING
31K views7 months ago
He was Sir Fazle Hasan Abed to the world. To us he was simply "Abed Bhai". Thank you, Abed bhai. Visit: www.brac.net/sirfazle ...
 
3:20NOW PLAYING
Partners In Health Co-founder Dr. Paul Farmer shares his views on hope, a prominent theme in a new book co-written with Fr.
 
4:03NOW PLAYING
Jan. 15 -- The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the world's largest philanthropic organization, has a singular objective: improve ...
 
57:00NOW PLAYING
Speaker: Fazle Hasan Abed, Founder and Chairperson, BRAC ...

  GLOBALLY WE HAVE A SYSTEMS PROBLEM- HOW DID WE GET TO 27TH DECADE OF MAN AND MACHINE BEING DOMINATED BY NATURE'S HATE-TESTING VIRUS -see this thinkrank debate on exponential risks of failing to value worldwide coalitions in time to celebrate sdgs by adapting to human and natural connectivity

in 1760's glasgow university's james watt was world's first engineer. His peer adam smith started asking the natural question can the world of humans and machines resolve the worlds of bad banking/legislators, sad education, ...'adam smith warned that the english colonial mindset and its financial-legislation systems offered no chance of lives mattering- after all embedded into london 's financial systems were slaVery and genocide as london fought to coloniSe the world, extracting other peoples natural resorces ...

in adam's day less than 1% of peples lived on the two island north west of continent europe-the english mindset emerged from having responsibility for less tha .01% of nature's land but as for the oceans london's capitalim is summed up in rule britannia britannia rules the waves britains neve never never shall be slaves- led by an organisation -the east india company -  that may only have been rivalled in the last 500 years by hitler's and stalin's (though there are a lot of sad cases of peoples being destoyed by supreme commanders, aka madmen)

in 1760 it is probably the case that as many people had sailed west to the new world of america as lived on the isles of london's capitalism- the continent of the new world probably consisted of about 30% of earth's land resources - so adam spent the rest of his life mediating a wizard idea- why not an united states of english speaking people, britain's isles could just be states ceding overall legislation to say brotherhood of man's philidelphia - unity should be sought on one condition- not only should legislation end slavery but owners of every businnes model - eg southern plantations, soon the railways that depened or low or no cost labor should be compensated and new models that value people development could be innovated - that in adams mind was the way to share benefits of machine and man all over natures world . If humans mapped west all across the new world with win-win trading maps they would eventuall connect the asia pacific region in joful economics exactly opposite to the dismal science that had was at risk of spinning exponentially on both sides of the atlantic pond

WHAT HAPPENED IN 1945 WHEN NATIONS MET AT SAN FRANCISCO OPER HOUSE TO UNITE

While it is possible to read the history of the first 16 decades of humans and machines in terms of 2 billion people being led to war by a handful of suptremely evil men, the root cause was the empire colonial system having continued to spin the wrong way- by now about 5% of brits and europeand had colonised 60% of humans living on contient of asia , 15 africa, 5% latin america- meanwhile the 5% in north america had committed genocide against native americans and persisted with extreme inequalitios of peoples with different colored skin. so its our belief that most of the big nations thatb met in san francisco sought 3 things-

reboot world economy

go post colonial

find system solutions both tech and grassroots human networking ones

remarkably by 1960 there were at least 4 multi-win system solutions VEST -  applying to VILLAGES, EGINEERS for improving human livelihhods, SPACE & SATELLITE telecommunicatining , thanks to von neumann and followed through by alumni of gordon moore 100 times more analytic machine power every decade -by 2020s that would approach a trillion times moore than needed for mit women to code moon landing

but this leaves the questions could humans mediate machines to end bad and mad and sad profesionals of banking/legislature, education, and health for the fewer 

 

SOLUTIONS FOR ENDING LIFELESS BANKING/LEGISLATORS

DAY 99 good news from beijing today- the first ever zoom of a worldwide development bank featured google's loon 10 times lower cost 4G for dev countries- ex google ceo china kai fu leegave a tour of his first 20 semi-unicorns many in AI-edu; the first session was co-hosted by the banking member from myanmar- yesterday tencent announced it was taking over the other major ai hub bordering peking/tsinghua uni- 3 of the 4 main strategists of aiib are based in britain or are british- how does one find connection with bux or osun-  hong kong's most trusted banker seems to be keeping door open for africa infrastructure banking  

SOLUTION TO ENDING SAD EDU 

 in parallel makoto (japan musicforsdgs.com and vienna boys choir are uniting world of conscious musicians with 24 hour jam during the virtual unga-

 

 ex google ceo china kai fu lee gave aiib 2020 annual meeting a tour of his first 20 semi-unicorns many in AI-edu; the first session was co-hosted by the banking member from myanmar- DAY 100 tencent announced it was taking over the other major ai hub bordering peking/tsinghua uni-

SOLUTIONS TO ENDING MADDENING HEALTH FOR THE FEW - the big hope is a digital asian currency not the paper dollar backs the vaccine solution for 8 billion http://valuetrue.com/id374.html 

 


 

 

..00:08 00:15 I am Suzanne Kell, executive vice president and chief operating officer of the Asia Foundation and on behalf of the world of Affairs Council I welcome all of you it's now my pleasure to welcome and introduce ourdistinguished guest Sir Fazle Hassan Abed is the founder and chairperson of BRAC 00:37 Sir Fazle was born in Bangladesh and was educated at Dhaka and Glasgow universities he worked as a shell oil executive before founding brac in 1972 what began as a limited relief operation called the Bangladesh rural advancement committee 00:54 brac has turned into the largest development organization in the world and the largest ngo coalition- as of 2012 the work of brac reaches an estimated 126 million people in 11 countries throughout Asia Africa and the Caribbean 01:07 sir Fazle has received numerous awards we'd be here all night if I were to begin to read them but he's had many many great honors for his outstanding and really unprecedented achievements with brac these include the David Rockefeller bridging Leadership Award the inaugural Clinton global citizen initiative the Gates award for global health and my personal favorite which is the Ramon Magsaysay Award for community leadership he's currently the age of Foundation's Cheng Lin Tian distinguished visiting fellow the Cheng Lin Tian visiting distinguished visiting fellow program honors dr. Tian who was chair of the Asia Foundation Board and was the Chancellor of the University of California at Berkeley so here tonight to speak about lessons for poverty alleviation in the developing world let me introduce you ladies and gentlemen to Sir Fazle Hasan Robin welcome 02:10 thank you very much ladies and gentlemen good evening I thank the Asha foundation for inviting me to be here today and for you to invite me to speak tonight I thought of talking about Bangladesh's struggle with poverty alleviation over the last 40 years when I started brac in 1972 02:40 Bangladesh was was the second poorest country in the world the poorest country was at that time was Upper Volta now called Burkina Faso so we were the bottom of them of the league the poorest country it became independent after war of liberation for about about a year with Pakistan the country was in ruins in the early 1972 when I started practice coming back from India at the time so the initial task was relief and rehabilitation the first one year we are just trying to get people the relief to survive and then the once the relief phase was over one felt that the country was so poor the people were so poor one couldn't really leave them to their own devices one had to commit oneself to long term development 03:49 situation Bangladesh was in at the time:we had seventy-eight percent of our population below the poverty line and the poverty line was also very low in the sense that it was defined as adult finding 21 calories of food literacy rate was less than 25% then mortality rate of children the infant mortality was one hundred and fifty two per thousand; the child ?(under 5) mortality was two hundred and sixty eight per thousand per capita income was less than $70 so that was the situation 04:44 in Bangladesh we didn't produce enough food to feed our people we needed to import about three million tons of rice and our port system didn't have the ability to you to handle all this food... we needed to help Bangladeshis to feed themselves due toour infrastructure problem: schools were destroyed the bridges were destroyed and the country was in ruins. the government was poor and didn't resources -kissinger apparently jokingly said bangladesh was a basket case but I hope it's not our basket case 05:26 so that was the situation so...Bangladesh is last forty years has done remarkably well..Goldman Sachs recently said that Bangla is the nextncountry after the BRICS 05:47 so Bangladesh has made progress and it's growing very fast it's about six percent annually right now and for the last ten years it has been growing more than five percent annually in last six 06:08 obviously if we keep up the growth in this present rate then we will be doing quite well and Goldman Sachs prediction might come true but then what do we did 06:19 so what did we do?that'ss the question that I'm going to try and answer and draw some lessons for other countries which are still poor and are confronting similar kind of problems have we faced5 now if you look at agriculture 06:40 Bangladesh we used to produce 15 million tons of rice paddy rice paddy in nine million hectares of land but over the last 30 years we have lost a million hectares of land in through other things eg infrastructure housing because our population has grown from 70 million we in had 1972 when we started to now 154 million so it's more than doubled but then food production has more than 0trebled so now producing 50 million tons of food rice production has grown up by more than the population growth rate so we are now --food self-sufficient so what did we do and why did Africa not do the same thing 07:30 and that's the question that I've been asking to myself the Green Revolution happened in Asia India of Bangladesh Vietnam China everybody took advantage of Green Revolution and idea many of you know who which which institutions were responsible for Green Revolution it was it was all kinds of institutions which were built by Rockefeller/ford Foundation and so on to own Agricultural Research which provided-this spearheaded the Green Revolution in Asia but in Africa it didn't have so when we when thirty years later I copy go to Africa brac goes to Africa it finds that there's no extension service going on there's no high-quality seats going on,there's no irrigation possibilities the government is not investing enough in infrastructure and so on so Africa is completely missed the Green Revolution 08:31 and then of course when I was on the board of Erie International Rice Research Institute and I happen to be the chairman of the finance in our finance and Audit Committee and elevated five billion dollars to Erie to go to Africa 08:48 just before Agra which was started by Gates Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation on to produce enough research for crop in Africa was created about six years ago six years ago so there's so much so that's one lesson about food production and agriculture where Africa needs to learn from 09:22 extension work in high quality seeds,multiple seed multiplication exchange a extension of good practices that farmers need to learn and proper dosage a fertilizer usage of biomass for so all kinds of things that needs to be done 09:41 one had to learn those and and we are trying to as I'm now working more in more countries in Africa now we are working to implement some of the things that we have learned in our own work in Bangladesh turning to child survival we had at in 1972 as I said that mortality rate was high very high so we what we did we looked at what kills children infant mortality rate and child mortality rate more than half the children fifty-three percent of the children died from diarrhea and we has ...we all knew that you don't have to a child doesn't have to die 10:34 from the idea oral dehydration all you have to do is to rehydrate the body with saline water it's called oral rehydration solution and then the child doesn't doesn't have to die nobody needs to die from diarrhea Tidy is a self-limiting disease so we decided in 1979 it was the International Year of the child 10:54 looked at the statistics in Bangladesh too many deaths from children and I thought if there's so many deaths mothers are not going to limit family size because they need to have some children surviving in their old age so so there are two things that I wanted to do I wanted to cut down infant mortality for its own sake and secondly to get mothers to limit size of the of the family so we started a program in 1979 to try and go to every household in rural Bangladesh and teach mothers how to make oral rehydration fluid at home so there are 18 million family -households do we have to go and visit so the first 30 dozen household was done and so the program ran for 10 years and we went to every households we paid our workers on the basis of retention of knowledge by the mothers and whether they could make the ordered rehydration for it correctly and we had to test the efficacy of the of the solution the mothers made in the house because we didn't want to make the endanger children if the solution was not right-if there was too much salt it would be dangerous for children so that kind of the so the program went very well and mothers learnt initially of course we had some problem but we solved them ultimately and we had we conducted the program throughout the country last four years of the program Jim grant was then head of UNICEF and then he said to me that can I get can I do something for you ' i said if you can you come and talk to our president to try and get every child immunized he said of course I'll come so he came to my college though we were all he persuaded the president that we should immwhile unize all children 13:00so we did that so so the government and brac isa non-governmental entity but we took half the country -even as all children and the government took the other half and in four years it went the immunization coverage went up 13:15 from 2% to to 76% so that was and then our president was invited to the conference UN conference on children because this that's what he wanted to come true so so Jim planned apparently said that he won't be invited unless you reach 70 percent coverage since there was the incentive anyway so so the child survival we we won that and of course dramatically declined mortality of more than two hundred and sixty four per thousand or under 14:10 of programs we did we try to make programs efficient of course programs were made effective and efficient and of course they're scaled out throughout the nation and that was needed to have an impact on child survival and reducing infant mortality and then of course maternal mortality another problem we are working on it now
invitations from economistfuture.com - a media project of family foundation norman macrae, cbe, japan order of rising sun
 
31 years ago our book world class brands, influenced by multiple editors at The Economist, asked whether media can be designed to multiply love and win-wins not hate -to join professional association beieving this in integral to sdgs please contact chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk

21 years ago our triole special issue of journal of marketing managent catalogued major brand leadership errors of the 20th centuty, and invited auditing professions to model 80% of a company or networks vale aroung goodwill/dbadwill expoenentials- an opposite maths to 90 days --- we reviewed the journal with harvard's marketing faculty whose head i hsd helped collect big database across 100 countries since 1980-: you may be right but no research funds in usa wpould ever be available for modeling 7 year impacts instead of 90 day extraction- we open sourced our value multiplication to track the lasst 3 yesars of total devaluaqtion of andersen accounting -value multiplication is as simple as if you zero trust with society how ever many trillins your business relationships are woth trillions times 0 does not equal trillion plus nought
 
to join our professional association of intangibles crisis union - please rsvp chris.macrae@yahoo.co.uk traction 
 
13 years ago my father norman macrae's cancer turned terminal- he wanted to understand one last economic miracle- how were the worlds poorest viullage women in banglaseh empowered over 5 0 years to build world leading health and education services for girls and livelihoods even while remaining system trapped on infgrastructure - bangladesh got the short straw geographicaly and timewise in being last top 10 population nation to gain independence from what london's bad capitalism had spun- 15 visits later i had collected 50 years of the bottom u jigsaw pieces which fazle abed passed on to brac university and the 30 college coalition of soros, ban ki moo0n, botstein and all who love seeing stidents find their place in the world - if you contact me with which part of the world's bottom up joigsaw you want to develop i will try and guide you to who to chat to first in the above legacy networks 
 
meanwhile if you are interested in changing the value distributed by every sports model so youth's real heroines get more shatre - see www.economistsports.net or www.economistarts.com 

SOLUTIONS FOR ENDING LIFELESS BANKING/LEGISLATORS

DAY 99 good news from beijing today- the first ever zoom of a worldwide development bank featured google's loon 010 times cheaper 4g for dev countries- ex google ceo china kai fu lee gave a tour of his first 20 semi-unicorns many in AI-edu; the first session was co-hosted by the banking member from myanmar- yesterday tencent announced it was taking over the other major ai hub bordering peking/tsinghua uni- 3 of the 4 main strategists of aiib are based in britain or are british- how does one find connection with bux or osun-  hong kong's most trusted banker seems to be keeping door open for africa infrastructure banking  

SOLUTION TO ENDING SAD EDU 

 in parallel makoto and vienna boys choir are uniting world of conscious musicians with 24 hour jam during the virtual unga-

 

 ex google ceo china kai fu lee gave a tour of his first 20 semi-unicorns many in AI-edu; the first session was co-hosted by the banking member from myanmar- DAY 100 tencent announced it was taking over the other major ai hub bordering peking/tsinghua uni-

SOLUTIONS TO ENDING MADDENING HEALTH FOR THE FEW - the big hope is a digital asian currency not the paper dollar backs the vaccine solution for 8 billion http://valuetrue.com/id374.html 

x

 

4:11NOW PLAYING
13 views7 years ago
See why George Soros and Sir Fazle Abed are epicentral to open society and open economics open education open everything ...

 14:37

it used to be 527 deaths per hundred

14:43

thousand births in 9th 2001 in 2007 it

14:49

came down to 327 in 2010 it came down to

14:55

199 and in brakes project areas it is

15:00

now 124 so so what am I wrong wait what

15:05

are we doing in Black's project area let

15:07

me tell you that we have very famous

15:10

very simple solution to the problem we

15:13

want women to give birth to our birthing

15:16

huts

15:17

we don't wanted them to go to hospital

15:19

but most women prefer to give birth in

15:22

their own households so but we are

15:24

trying to get them into a more sterile

15:26

kind of environment where a plastic

15:30

sheet which is sterile

15:31

we also have a birthing kit with sterile

15:36

gauze and sterile thread to cocci the

15:39

umbilical cord and it raised raised

15:42

sterile plate and so on so it's a very

15:46

simple what we called birthing kit which

15:49

black produces in in thousands and

15:52

distributes it throughout the country so

15:54

even if you are having him child in the

15:56

home you can still be safe but so it's a

16:01

simple solution but you are and more

16:06

expensive solution will not not

16:08

necessarily be more effective in the

16:10

sense that if you say that take them to

16:12

the hospital they won't go so so we have

16:16

to find simple innovative solutions to

16:21

this problem so we are real we are on

16:24

the way to reducing mortality of mothers

16:27

but then just talking this morning that

16:30

maternal mortality in Norway is 3 per

16:36

hundred thousand

16:37

so whatever so even hundreds and

16:40

hundreds and 40s to many so what are we

16:43

building now so for the future we are

16:47

building metal a school for training

16:53

midwives because ultimately it's a

16:57

long-term sustainability of this program

17:00

will depend on whether we have enough

17:02

midwives obstetricians we have but

17:05

they're in hospitals and but they won't

17:07

act without you know this status to

17:09

gather so in mothers having obstructive

17:13

delivery just won't have this kind of

17:15

service that we need so we need good

17:18

quality Midwife so we are trying to

17:20

produce that now in Iraq but right now

17:23

what we are trying to do not training

17:25

advice but training faculty for midwives

17:28

so we need to set up a number of

17:31

midwifery colleges where we need faculty

17:34

so we are we are starting with MSC in

17:38

midwifery so so that's that's starting

17:41

next week in brac University so that's

17:46

what we are trying to do in health in

17:48

education we had only 25 percent of our

17:51

population

17:52

illiterate 32 percent was made in

17:57

eighteen percent female literacy in

18:00

Bangladesh when we when we inherited

18:02

Bangladesh so there there was a big

18:05

struggle to get her as many people as

18:08

possible into primary school and what

18:11

did Bragg do we had we set up instead of

18:15

building five room primary schools so

18:20

building cost time training teachers for

18:24

one year or two years I thought we all

18:27

know we can't afford that so we we

18:30

decided on a very simple solution to

18:32

we'll hire a room which is approximately

18:37

300 square feet 240 years to 50 years

18:41

square feet where we will have 35

18:44

children in one teacher

18:46

and the teacher will be a personality

18:49

from the village with 12 years 10 to 12

18:51

years of education which should be a

18:53

housewife if possible a married person

18:55

so that she doesn't marry often go

18:57

somewhere else so we we we trained her

19:02

for two weeks and then supervise her

19:06

every week twice and then once a month a

19:11

refresher course today so that was the

19:15

the black model and it worked

19:17

exceedingly well I remember reading it

19:20

in a newspaper article in ordinary nice

19:23

way a journal article about the ten best

19:27

schools in the world where do they give

19:30

the best education the Netherlands was

19:33

providing the best education in maths

19:36

and languages foreign language of course

19:40

any that child can speak two languages

19:42

other than his own you find the best

19:47

educational administration was in was in

19:50

Germany they used to train their

19:52

teachers well they had longer hours for

19:54

teaching the course was more cost

19:57

effective less cost but more output

20:03

Sweden was the best for adult education

20:06

so if you are a graduate in philosophy

20:09

and wants to want at the age of 55 to

20:12

find out what's going on going on and in

20:15

philosophy

20:16

you could go to university is he in in

20:18

Sweden and and finders find out what's

20:21

being what's happening Italy of course

20:24

his best for preschool remember this

20:27

there in the Boundary service system was

20:29

created by them and then Japan was very

20:34

good for or the best for science

20:36

education science for their or their

20:38

schools was school science program New

20:42

Zealand was the best for teaching

20:44

mother-tongue if you are speaking

20:46

English that they teach English better

20:48

to you and then the United States was

20:53

best for this ph.d program so that was

20:56

the 10 best schools in the world so I

20:59

thought why not get the New Zealand

21:01

teacher to come and teach us how to

21:04

teach Bangla to our Bengali speaking

21:06

children so they must have a methodology

21:09

of teaching so we got Sousa Hilary

21:12

Sir Edmund Hillary was the the Conqueror

21:17

of Everest

21:18

was the our New Zealand's ambassador to

21:21

Bangladesh in India and he was based in

21:24

Delhi so I sent my number to one of my

21:27

assistants to go and see Sir Edmund and

21:30

try and get a couple of teachers from

21:33

New Zealand to come and teach us out how

21:36

to teach Bangla so I got two teachers

21:39

from New Zealand and they stayed with us

21:41

for six months that they worked with us

21:43

and so on and I wanted to get to get a

21:45

Dutch tea a maths teacher but I couldn't

21:49

find one so I found a an English

21:52

professor at Leeds University and

21:54

developed the curriculum for Africa

21:56

countries and formats

21:57

he came on worked with us because maths

22:00

unless you teach them well children

22:04

don't like it don't are afraid of bats

22:07

but if you can teach them well they love

22:09

it so so we developed a system of

22:13

teaching which most of the children just

22:16

love to do maths and they're not afraid

22:18

of it at all so that's what we got out

22:21

of this seeking help from other

22:24

countries and then black education

22:27

program this one teacher school we we

22:32

had 22 schools first pilot ten of these

22:38

schools were in our project area where

22:40

we had microfinance and other other

22:41

program and 12 outside the project area

22:44

we didn't have we didn't want to have

22:46

location have anything to do with the

22:49

quality of education so we had quality

22:51

control we had monitoring system and

22:54

everything was right place so after

22:57

after after the first cohort of children

23:00

coming out of our 22 schools they were

23:04

far superior to the Nash

23:06

children from the national system they

23:09

were better at reading but writing

23:11

better in maths so so obviously we found

23:15

it very successful model for replicating

23:18

this program throughout the nation so

23:21

over there for the next ten years we had

23:24

32,000 schools so by 22 by 2200 year

23:29

2000 we had 36,000 one teacher school is

23:32

1.2 million children in them and of

23:37

course over the last over these years we

23:40

have now educated about 6 million

23:42

children we have gone on to high school

23:45

and universities and some of the world

23:47

studying medicine in China and all kinds

23:51

of things so that was our effort into

23:56

private getting every the poorest

24:00

children particularly those who never

24:01

went to school before a girls mostly we

24:05

wanted to have one 2/3 of the children

24:09

we took in our schools or girls so we

24:12

didn't want to start his school in a

24:14

village where they couldn't find enough

24:16

girls at least 70% had to be girls in

24:19

our schools so that's how breaks

24:25

education program expanded throughout

24:27

the country now microfinance we have

24:33

invented bike to finance we expanded

24:36

throughout the country like the finest

24:38

did quite well but then microfinance

24:41

itself but just financing doesn't make

24:44

that you are going to make a livelihood

24:46

out of it all the time successfully we

24:49

found for example that about 300,000

24:52

women who were growing vegetables they

24:55

were they didn't make much profit

24:56

because that quality seats were not

24:58

available

24:59

we found the women who bought cows with

25:02

their borrowed money from microfinance

25:05

they couldn't sell their milk in rural

25:10

areas because there was no no

25:12

market for milk in rural Bangladesh so

25:15

we had to break her to go into social

25:17

enterprises so we set up a milk plant

25:20

which collected milk from all over the

25:22

country from areas where they couldn't

25:25

find a milk market we brought them in to

25:27

duck and then pasteurized milk and

25:32

distributed yogurt and ice cream and

25:34

milk and everything so so this was the

25:37

business for us we went into seed

25:40

business so that this is women could

25:44

produce more her productivity to put

25:47

increase so like that we went to

25:50

different kinds of businesses try and

25:52

get poor people to earn more more from

25:58

what they're trying to do so either

25:59

providing better inputs or marketing

26:03

their products so black as a as a entity

26:07

has become the largest organization in

26:11

the world in terms of size who are more

26:14

than hundred thousand people work for us

26:17

in Bangladesh alone and another nine

26:23

thousand work in other countries and our

26:26

budget is 629 million this year of which

26:32

70% come from our businesses and 30

26:35

percent comes from donors so businesses

26:39

are so I we've gone into business like

26:41

banking we are we owned the fifth

26:45

largest bank in Bangladesh because

26:48

microfinance only creates jobs for

26:52

people who are for themselves

26:56

self-employment it doesn't create jobs

26:59

for others so we wanted to lend money to

27:03

people who will create jobs so small and

27:06

medium enterprise lending was the main

27:08

focus of a black bank so that's what

27:11

what we did then there was another group

27:14

of people they were too poor to even

27:16

borrow money

27:18

we call them ultra poor and we have

27:21

developed a program now over what three

27:23

hundred three hundred dollars but

27:26

capital investments in a family and

27:29

holding their hands sending their

27:32

children to school providing them an

27:36

asset which they could could earn

27:38

something from and a monthly stipend for

27:42

two years we hold their hands and and

27:44

then after that they become microfinance

27:46

clients and then gradually come out of

27:49

poverty so that program was digging up a

27:52

couple of months ago in in the economist

27:54

by do Hawaii Esther Duflo on MIT and she

28:00

said that this transformation of women

28:02

on the poorest women was so great in the

28:07

sense that the three hundred dollars

28:09

that brakes spent on them he couldn't

28:11

have done it but what what was the what

28:14

happened the transformation was for the

28:18

women this hope created a new kind of

28:21

transformation they worked harder they

28:23

fed their children my son they send

28:25

their Thunder to school so all kinds of

28:27

things happen because of that now let me

28:33

let me say a few words about the other

28:37

part of my presentation which was going

28:40

to be lessons for Africa and countries

28:42

and I shared I talked a little bit about

28:44

agriculture but I think most important

28:49

things that break is done is innovation

28:52

there are many things

28:53

it's a frugal innovation we call them

28:56

innovation which doesn't cost much but

28:58

very effective so we have for example

29:02

100,000 women trained in each one in

29:06

each village we call them health

29:09

promoters so basic health care services

29:12

they provide it doesn't take a lot of

29:15

training but you have to have to keep

29:17

them bringing them in for retraining

29:20

keep them you know solidarity among them

29:25

and then you find a

29:28

a huge group of people trying to provide

29:32

services to their community volunteers

29:36

but but there are also members of the

29:39

black group and there are also borrowers

29:42

from our microfinance program but they

29:45

also provide this service to their own

29:46

community so we have that and that's

29:48

wonderful as a it's a part it's the kind

29:53

of innovation which which helps in

29:57

getting a pork poor community lifted out

30:00

of poverty so that's one area the

30:04

effectiveness and efficiencies of

30:05

programming and scaling up most programs

30:10

remain small and beautiful and never

30:12

impactful so one has to be what suppose

30:18

to weary of small programs however

30:20

beautiful they may be when you have

30:23

millions of people in poverty

30:24

you can't remain small and beautiful so

30:27

you have to be effective and even if

30:30

large means ugly you have to be

30:34

effective and I don't really think that

30:35

large necessarily means ugly I bought

30:39

for shale oil and I didn't find in a lot

30:42

of ugliness in shale oil at all this lot

30:44

of efficiency in it so so I would urge

30:48

that programs be scaled up to cover as

30:52

many people as possible and so scaling

30:55

up is important and to remain learning

30:58

and learning organization continuously

31:00

learning in your efforts to find newer

31:04

ways of responding to the needs of the

31:11

people you serve that might these are

31:15

the lessons that one needs to transmit

31:18

to countries in poverty thank you very

31:20

much thanks very much for your inspiring

31:30

remarks and we have a lot of different

31:32

kinds of questions I think we'll start

31:34

with one on something that you haven't

31:37

touched on but I I'm sure you're

31:38

thinking about this and you probably

31:40

have already gone well beyond anybody's

31:43

imagination so the question is how have

31:45

rats development strategies changed over

31:48

the years especially with the

31:50

proliferation of mobile technology

31:52

technology yeah so what are we doing

31:54

there

31:55

technology we are a way yes we are doing

32:00

a number of things one is that in the

32:03

old days I remember that

32:06

you know oral rehydration therapy we

32:09

wanted to we wanted to pay our workers

32:11

on the basis of retention of knowledge

32:14

by the mothers that they taught so how

32:18

did we do that we had 10 percent of the

32:20

households that that they are already

32:22

hydration what was visited our monitors

32:25

would go and check what percentage of

32:27

the message they remembered and whether

32:29

they could make the oral rehydration

32:30

plate correctly so the monitors would go

32:34

in so how do I check the monitors or are

32:36

they going to a tea stall and just

32:38

feeling of the form like that what are

32:41

they going actually going to the house

32:43

so I didn't know how what to do about

32:44

that so I found it I devised in a system

32:47

the system was the oral rehydration

32:50

worker visiting a household would write

32:52

down the name of the youngest member of

32:55

the house so it may be a two-year-old

32:57

Asifa so she will note that down and

33:01

then when the monitors will go in she/he

33:03

will not be given or she will not be

33:05

given the name of that Asifa he supposed

33:08

to ask the same question and write down

33:10

after monitoring the name so if the name

33:13

didn't match we knew that he didn't go

33:15

to the household so we set a number of a

33:19

number of monitors because they because

33:22

they were cheating now I don't have to

33:26

go to this household but the the mobile

33:28

technology now makes it possible for us

33:31

to find out exactly where he is and

33:34

whether he is talking from the household

33:36

so we now have all our workers were

33:41

supposed to go and do antenatal care to

33:43

the women pregnant women

33:44

I want her photograph that that he takes

33:47

that day and it comes with in doors into

33:50

our database so we know that she has

33:52

visited and she has given the genetic

33:55

game so that's one mobile technology is

33:57

called so use of mobile tech toys the

34:00

other bone technologies is what Bill and

34:03

Melinda Gates bill Bill Gates

34:05

particularly was very keen he told me

34:08

about five years ago he said I want poor

34:11

people are you people are giving money

34:12

to the poor okay fine market

34:15

microfinance is okay but I want them to

34:17

also have ability to save money savings

34:20

and and saving money in a bank for a

34:25

poor person he can't even enter the bank

34:26

because he's too afraid to go into a big

34:30

bank so how does the poor person save

34:33

money so he said so I said with that we

34:38

collect money from our microfinance

34:39

clients he said but when you collect

34:41

money from equivalents clients if he

34:43

needs that needs ten taka tomorrow he

34:46

can't come to you and things like that

34:48

so I want him to have safe accessible

34:51

money so I said all right in that case

34:55

you have to fund me so we have this

35:00

system of so we have the mobile money

35:03

transfer and while or wallet in our

35:07

system now in Bangladesh so bread Bank

35:10

is the first bank in Bangladesh to have

35:12

mobile transfer mobile accounts so we

35:16

are now have we have just started so he

35:18

gave me twelve million dollars to to do

35:22

the marketing of it we invested about 10

35:26

million ourselves for the hardware

35:29

four you have to keep 30 million

35:32

accounts in a computer system so you

35:34

need a lot of hardware and very powerful

35:38

hardware so anyway so he gave us to

35:42

eternal million to expand the program so

35:44

we now have 12 to million clients and

35:47

hopefully we'll have maybe 30 40 50

35:52

million clients in course of time saving

35:55

money it's not saving not necessarily

35:57

just saving but also transferring money

35:59

to others so it becomes so they become

36:01

bank you know so account holder so

36:06

Bangladesh Sri Ram - the poor countries

36:07

I think we will become the first country

36:09

where almost universal bank accounts

36:12

holders everybody who bank I got all

36:14

that so that's is the technology is

36:17

going to bring kind of new avenues of

36:21

for poor people to have access to kind

36:24

of thing that they never had access to

36:26

the other thing that mobile technology

36:28

will bring you and I have not even

36:30

touched that and the most important

36:33

thing is education not mobile technology

36:35

technology i.t i.t is going to make it

36:39

possible for us to put educational

36:42

materials on the websites for for the

36:46

children in the remotest villages which

36:49

has connected with the internet could

36:51

have access to already Harvard and MIT

36:54

is providing courses that Bangladesh is

36:58

can take from Bangladesh sitting there

37:01

but then primary and secondary school

37:04

children their teachers who are half

37:06

educated who themselves need education

37:10

they will we can all be helped through

37:15

websites and so on if the right content

37:18

is available so brac is now I've got 30

37:21

people working on content development in

37:23

primary and secondary education so

37:25

hopefully when in the next five years we

37:27

have connectivity all over the country

37:29

we should have accessed new kind of

37:32

content here's a different question this

37:39

questioner says that the MDGs the

37:42

Millennium Development Goals are coming

37:44

to an end is there anything that brat

37:46

can contribute to plan the next set of

37:48

goals and what would Brack have done

37:50

differently with the current MDGs the

37:52

MDGs so far is fine in the sense that

37:55

for example they talk about education so

37:59

education means MDG goal is to get all

38:03

children enrolled into primary school

38:06

the quality of education they don't talk

38:08

about they don't even talk about

38:10

finishing primary school and how many

38:13

years of primary school they don't talk

38:15

about that and this so for the first

38:18

phase enrolling children into school was

38:21

probably a good goal to have and not

38:24

bother too much about quality although

38:26

quality is important but now the next

38:30

MDG will need to have some kind of a

38:32

quality measurement in terms of mdj

38:36

education for example my bad thing is

38:40

which I am trying to promote and there

38:44

is a eminent groups group of person with

38:46

who is advising the secretary-general is

38:50

the is the president of Indonesia Prime

38:53

Minister of England Britain and the

38:58

president of Sierra Leone is Ellen

39:01

Johnson Sirleaf and bang bang and the

39:06

British prime minister so these three

39:08

are now trying to develop the next with

39:13

their Secretariat trying to develop the

39:15

next Millennium Development Goals

39:17

so I'm I've got many things many agenda

39:20

for them so I will be writing a couple

39:24

of operates in New York Times to the

39:25

next few days

39:27

this facility back to attract your

39:29

attention so one is legal empowerment of

39:33

the poor it's not just empowering with

39:37

this that or the other but we want legal

39:40

empowerment in other words people should

39:43

have rights of things Bangladesh has got

39:46

for example has got a legislation for

39:51

that the children between the ages of 6

39:54

and 10 must be in school but one of

39:57

those government doesn't give guarantee

39:59

that every child will have a school

40:01

place we don't have another school place

40:03

so there is no right to education so we

40:07

will don't want right to education not

40:10

just you know children will should be

40:13

provided education but children should

40:16

have right to education so that's one

40:18

more area the other is right to jobs

40:22

right to enterprise right for to to be

40:31

in a place where you have you you are

40:34

may be squatting you are what I'm

40:36

talking about is slum dwellers wherever

40:40

they are staying some kind of a right to

40:42

give to be given to them so that they

40:44

can have access to water access to

40:46

sanitation so these are rights that we

40:49

would be seeing in the next millennium

40:51

development goals and I hope that that

40:55

we are all will we all participate in in

41:00

designing and next million in

41:02

development goal which would be

41:04

important

41:05

it's a different kind of question this

41:09

person would like to get your sense of

41:11

how Bangladesh will confront global

41:13

warming in the rise of oceans which

41:15

clearly is yes it is a major threat for

41:20

Bangladesh Bangladesh is in the

41:21

forefront of this struggle to adapt

41:25

itself to the sea level rises already

41:30

one sees a lot of things happening to

41:32

Bangladesh I mean sea level hasn't

41:34

really reasoned by so many feet or

41:36

anything like that but more cyclones are

41:39

happening more droughts is happening the

41:42

water water pattern is changing all

41:46

kinds of things are happening and then

41:48

as although she has not really come into

41:51

Bangladesh but is the tides bring in

41:54

more water saline water into the soil so

41:56

the rice growing fields have suddenly

41:59

become salinated this saline soil so

42:03

there has been lot of research by Eyrie

42:05

on Saran resistant rice varieties Saran

42:09

resistant wheat varieties and things

42:11

like that so these new kinds of seed

42:15

breeding we have been working on for

42:17

last the last 20 years brac is not

42:20

working on that in Bangladesh and

42:22

introducing new varieties of crops as

42:25

well as new resistant varieties

42:28

surrender resistant varieties of rice

42:30

and other crops so that's one area

42:33

agricultural research how to operate in

42:36

a different context also drought

42:41

resistant varieties of rice rice which

42:44

takes less water crops which take less

42:47

water and so on so so there is a

42:49

research going on all the time and plant

42:51

breeding and then of course I see last

42:56

ten years looking at southern Bangladesh

42:59

there are lot of people have moved

43:02

already because they realized the death

43:04

of

43:05

many have gone into India because

43:09

there's the border is porous and many

43:12

have come to the towns Dhaka and

43:16

Chittagong large towns so this is

43:19

happening so population

43:21

you know migration is happening quite a

43:23

bit so and then of course the other

43:29

thing is that you know we need to

43:32

ourselves prepared they prepare for not

43:38

only adaptation but mitigation also so

43:42

we are looking at that but I think

43:44

Bangladesh will need a lot of support

43:47

from donor countries to try and adapt

43:51

itself to the situation that we find

43:53

ourselves we have a number of questions

43:56

from people who are really interested in

43:58

the the way in which brac needs to adapt

44:01

to work in other countries especially in

44:02

Africa so different variations about

44:05

tweaking the model or what kind of

44:06

cultural challenges as you find and how

44:09

can you effectively move programs that

44:12

have been successful in Bangladesh to

44:14

places right right well this is this is

44:17

a problem and didi Steve Jobs wife

44:22

Lorraine Jobs once asked me she said how

44:26

come breck took 30 years to come out of

44:29

Bangladesh slice leave it us for at

44:34

least another problem we need us for

44:36

another hundred years or so but but we

44:39

are not as a global thinkers as you

44:42

people are we are concerned with our own

44:45

country and we haven't solved our

44:47

problems yet but then it took us 30

44:50

years most most Bangladeshis don't even

44:54

think that they should go to another

44:55

country they should first try and

44:57

service their own country but then the

45:00

reason I came out of Bangladesh is

45:01

because Afghanistan looked similar to

45:04

Bangladesh in 1972 and so I thought that

45:07

I we could do something about it so we

45:10

went to Afghanistan we found different

45:12

culture our microfinance

45:16

loan officer old man in Bangla most of

45:19

them are men in Bangladesh but it is we

45:22

were in Afghanistan and we wanted to

45:23

serve the women borrowers they said men

45:27

can't men men won't be allowed to see

45:29

women so I said alright fine we'll have

45:33

all the women loan officers so we hired

45:35

all women loan officers but then the

45:38

Afghan said we need to have chaperone

45:40

for them to go to the village

45:45

so no chaperone I said no chaperone if

45:48

they want to have a job in bribe they

45:50

will have to work on their own so we

45:53

held tight with no nothing doing but

45:57

then we started recruiting women and

45:59

they started going to the village

46:01

serving their own women as back to

46:04

finance clients and so it worked quite

46:06

well so there was no problem a problem

46:09

was only this adaptation not male

46:12

workers but female workers the other

46:16

thing that I have having worked in half

46:19

of Africa and other countries in Asia I

46:22

find in the poor people's aspirations

46:25

dreams and struggles are same almost

46:27

everywhere and they're not punch changed

46:32

and necessary for you know in our

46:34

program that we now have focused on web

46:37

horn on poor people the the adaptation

46:41

as I mentioned is this kind of

46:43

adaptation who goes and who talks with

46:46

whom and things like that ultimately of

46:50

course breaths work will not be done

46:53

will be done by local people because I'm

46:56

automated I believe that a country's

46:58

development depends on its own people

47:00

and the leadership must stop from them

47:02

so we are therefore temporarily in other

47:05

countries we have some

47:08

probably some expertise having worked

47:12

for last 40 years in Poverty Alleviation

47:14

we want to transfer this to locals and

47:18

then once they can do it themselves we

47:22

would like to withdraw so basically

47:24

there will be practice in Tanzania and

47:26

Uganda and and in Africa and and and

47:30

Afghanistan but then they'll be run by

47:32

Afghans I didn't want Bangladesh's to go

47:35

and rule the roost there at all there

47:40

several questions about development

47:43

programs one is about the United States

47:46

and given the rhetoric about reducing

47:49

foreign aid yes

47:51

what does RAC have to say about that and

47:53

also how would you foreign aid

47:54

coordinated how would you also talk to

47:57

China about how it should effectively

47:58

use its resources to promote development

48:01

especially in Africa yes so I did a

48:05

foreign aid of course is a different

48:07

thing I mean a United States government

48:09

is not very generous as you know only

48:12

point less than 2% of GDP 0.2 percent of

48:16

GDP goes to foreign donors but then

48:19

people in the United States are very

48:20

generous and through foundations and

48:24

other kinds of giving the United States

48:26

gave about three times as much or more

48:30

than that five times as much what the

48:32

government does to through International

48:36

Development so so I wouldn't so the

48:40

government is his his less generous but

48:45

the people are very generous and give

48:47

money for International Development

48:50

so what China China is a funny country

48:55

funny country in the sense that they are

48:57

doing is so well in developing their own

49:03

economy but they've got poverty a lot of

49:06

poverty is inside China and you know the

49:10

Chinese poverty line is lower than

49:12

bangladesh's it's 82 cents per capita is

49:18

below that they call it poverty

49:21

about that it's okay so so it's if the

49:26

property line is very low and that's why

49:28

China shows less than 10% poverty but

49:31

for what he will probably be more like

49:32

15 20 percent so that's one area in what

49:36

and and so the China to some extent

49:40

looks a little away about their poor

49:44

people and I had the Minister of poverty

49:47

Port alleviation in China I hosted him

49:52

in brac for a week and he saw the

49:55

programs and so on so I was hoping that

49:59

there would be some change in their

50:01

policies about about poor people and

50:03

they had the the way they treat their

50:05

poor so that's the other area that they

50:12

need to really focus on the other area

50:15

that the last two six months I receive

50:20

two invitations from China both of them

50:23

are on a very very noble kind of subject

50:28

is China China is afraid of being what

50:36

is called being in a middle income trap

50:42

you know about this right China is

50:46

afraid of middle income trap so I said

50:49

well so I said what do you want me to

50:52

talk about it so he said well you have

50:56

you have ideas about things that we

50:59

could do to avoid middle income trap so

51:05

I said off the cuff I'll tell you this

51:07

ambassador ambassador who came to see me

51:09

so I can't manage to go to this

51:11

conference but I tell you one or two

51:13

things that I think will be important

51:15

and for you to do to avoid billion

51:19

contract because the two countries that

51:21

have become high-income country in the

51:23

last thirty years are Singapore and

51:27

Korea

51:29

and what have they done that the others

51:32

in there among themselves their peers

51:36

didn't do I can see only two things only

51:39

one thing singapore built a fairly high

51:42

quality university which is sort of is

51:48

the powerhouse of creating jobs

51:52

enterprise innovation all kinds of

51:54

things like that

51:55

and so is korea so if you want to build

52:01

China as a high income country then you

52:06

have to build a dozen Oxford dozen

52:10

Cambridge doesn't Harvard and doesn't

52:15

Stanford do that and then you can build

52:20

a high income Society so I said what he

52:22

said why is this so I said well it's

52:27

because in order to build these

52:30

universities you need to have and out

52:33

them well you have to give complete

52:36

freedom to and for the intellect for the

52:38

intellectuals so there will be no

52:40

controls of state control you have to

52:43

forego about what you you can't you

52:48

can't get the faculty to think only on

52:50

the what the party line on the party

52:53

line at all then you won't have it and

52:56

the third thing is that they must be

52:59

self-governing institutions like

53:02

universities are if you can build that

53:05

then you will have a high income Society

53:07

you can't then you pay we're coming

53:15

nearly to the close and there are two

53:17

questions here that are more about brac

53:20

the institution one of them you can

53:22

answer very quickly which is someone

53:25

would like to know about brac in the

53:27

United States and how they can support

53:28

brac in the US and the second question I

53:32

think is a very appropriate way to end

53:34

and it comes from another iconic NGO

53:37

leader

53:38

this one from Indonesia pop about a new

53:41

crop

53:41

so his question is does brac have a

53:45

succession plan beyond your leadership

53:46

so I think that's an appropriate way to

53:48

end but before that say something about

53:51

and we talked about this earlier so I

53:52

know it's a fair question just say a

53:54

board about brac us a black you say well

53:57

we have got a brekkie you say who is a

53:59

friend of mine who has been no who is

54:02

known black for a long time his word for

54:06

for foundation in Bangladesh is now

54:08

president of black USA Susan Davis and

54:11

she has got about ten staff working for

54:16

her

54:16

and raising about twenty to twenty-five

54:19

million from foundations a ID and v like

54:24

that for black programs in Africa bread

54:27

programs in Bangladesh we can raise

54:28

enough money for ourselves but is the

54:31

new programs which has improved proven

54:33

themselves they need a little bit money

54:37

which is from institutions we can take

54:40

risks so so that's the reason why we

54:43

find it 20 because so so we are raising

54:46

money and we we aren't known by I mean

54:49

we have got some some very loyal donors

54:52

in the United States

54:53

Soros George Soros is a good friend he

54:56

funds anything that I placed before him

54:59

almost then Bill and Melinda Gates are

55:02

good friends they would see anything

55:05

that practice could they help with if it

55:09

is within their within their mandate

55:11

they will do it so we have some good

55:14

friends and we are we are getting good

55:15

support the last question was was

55:20

succession well I have already retired

55:23

more or less from day to day running of

55:26

brac I still go to office but but that's

55:29

a habit rather than yes they spend about

55:33

eight hours in the office people come

55:36

and see me I give them advice and I have

55:38

a one a monthly one day one they are a

55:41

month I have a meeting with with the

55:43

management but that's about all

55:44

but I've tried to make

55:48

BRAC has independent of me as possible

55:52

over the last 10 years I've been

55:53

gradually extricating myself myself from

55:56

responsibilities for brac and I hope

55:58

that I've got a good leadership even

56:00

better than what I did and I've always

56:04

felt that I we need very high quality

56:07

people in to run brac and I'm trying to

56:11

I've got them thank you thank you so

56:22

much this concludes the evening on

56:24

behalf of the World Affairs Council in

56:26

the Asia Foundation

56:27

I want to thank you sir faucet peasant

56:29

oven for being with us tonight

56:31

and thank you all from all of you for

56:34

many many exciting questions I'm sorry

56:36

we couldn't take every single one but I

56:38

hope you've enjoyed the evening and

56:40

thank you all for being here..

 

 

 

 

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